Canine enucleation is an irreversible surgical procedure consisting in the removal of one of the dog's eyes as a last option treatment indicated in some eye diseases or affections.

Pug Information
Therapeutical Indications

There are several reasons why your dog's eye may have to be removed. Pug's tend to have protruding eyes, which are more prone to injuries.

Indications for eye removal:
- a ruptured or perforated eyeball,
- untreatable, end-stage glaucoma,
- cataract,
- an ocular tumor,
- a lens luxation,
- a very severe eye infection that is unresponsive to treatment (to prevent contamination of other eye)
- a congenital deformity
- inflammation of the eyeball (called endophthalmitis)
- abnormal cell growth (intraocular neoplasms)
- or an eye that is painfull due to another disease

Surgical options

There are three types of eye removal:

The first one, evisceration, is the removal of the internal eye contents, leaving the sclera behind with the extraocular muscles still attached.

The second one, called an exenteration, consists of the removal of all the tissues within the eye socket (orbit), including muscles, fat and other adjacent structures and tissues. This procedure is used primarily in the case of eye tumors. The eyelids may also be removed in cases of cutaneous cancers and unrelenting infection.

In the third option, known as standard enucleation, only the eyeball is being removed without taking all the surrounding tissue. It is the most commonly performed procedure. After removal of the eye, the eyelid edges are permanently sutured closed. In some instances, a silicone or plastic sphere is inserted into the eye socket (orbit) before the skin is sewn closed. This is done to prevent the skin of the face from sinking into the orbit. It is only performed if there is no chance that infection or cancer was present in the eye or the orbit. Once the hair grows back in the area, the appearance of the dog is usually quite good.

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